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VOL. 91

JANUARY 1989

NO. 1

(ISSN 0013-8797)

PROCEEDINGS

of the

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

f WASHINGTON

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY

Jlll-^ CONTENTS

BAKER, G. T. and M. M. ELLSBURY Morphology of the mouth parts and antenna of the

larva of the clover stem borer, Languria mozardi Latreille (Coleoptera: Languriidae) .... 15

CLARK, W. E. and H. R. BURKE Revision of the ornatus species group of the genus An-

ihonomus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) 88

ELLSBURY, M. M. and G. T. BAKER Biological and morphological aspects of the egg stage

and oviposition of Languria mozardi (Coleoptera: Languriidae) 9

FERNANDES, G. W., W. J. BOECKLEN, R. P. MARTINS and A. G. CASTRO-Ants as- sociated with a coleopterous leaf-bud gall on Xylopia aromatica (Annonaceae) 81

HANSSON, C New World species of Hokopelte and lonympha (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae),

with descriptions of two new species 59

HELLENTHAL, R. A. and R. D. VKICE-Geomydoecus (Mallophaga: Trichodectidae) from

the Texas and desert pocket gophers (Rodentia: Geomyidae) 1

HEYDON, S. L. A review of the world species of Nologlyptus masi (Hymenoptera: Pterom-

alidae) 112

HURD, L. E. and R. M. EISENBERG— A mid-summer comparison of sizes and growth rates

among nymphs of three sympatric mantids (Mantodea: Mantidae) in two old-field habitats 51

HURD, L. E. and R. M. EISENBERG— Temporal distribution of hatching times in three sym- patric mantids (Mantodea: Mantidae) with implications for niche separation and coexistence 55

MARSH, P. S. Notes on the genus Hybrizon in North America (Hymenoptera: Paxylomma-

tidae) 29

M ILLER, S. E.andV.O. BECKER - North American moths described by L. A. G. Bosc D' Antic

(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, P^ralidae) 22

PAOLETTI, M. G. and B. R. STINNER— Two new terrestrial Isopoda (Oniscidea) from coralline

cays of Venezuela's Caribbean coast 71

ROCK, E. A. and D. JACKSON Naturally occurring host sites for xylophilic Cecidomyiidae

(Diptera) 66

STARR, C. K.— The ins and outs of a tropical social wasp nest 26

(Continued on back cover)

THE

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

OF WASHINGTON

Organized March 12, 1884 OFFICERS FOR 1989

F. Christian Thompson President Jeffrey R. Aldrich President- Elect Richard G. Robbins, Recording Secretary John M. Kingsolver, Corresponding Secretary Norman E. Woodley, Treasurer

Warren E. Steiner, Jr. Program Chairman

Geoffrey B. White, Membership Chairman

Anne M. Wieber, Custodian

Manya B. Stoetzel, Delegate. Wash. Acad. Sci.

Rebecca F. Surdick

Hiram G. Larew, Editor Publications Committee

Book Review Editor B. V. Peterson

George C. Steyskal

Louise M. Russell

Honorary President Curtis W. Sabrosky

Honorary Members Alan Stone

Theodore L. Bissell

All correspondence concerning Society business should be mailed to the appropriate officer at the following address: Entomological Society of Washington, c/o Department of Entomology, NHB 168, Smithsonian Insti- tution, Washington, D.C. 20560.

MEETINGS. Regular meetings of the Society arc held in the Natural History Building, Smithsonian Institution, on the first Thursday of each month from October to June, inclusive, at 8 P.M. Minutes of meetings are published regularly in the Proceedings.

MEMBERSHIP. Members shall be persons who have demonstrated interest in the science of entomology. Annual dues for members arc $20.00 (U.S. currency) of which $18.00 is for a subscription to the Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington for one year.

PROCEEDINGS.— The Proceedings arc published quarterly beginning in January by The Entomological Society of Washington. % Department of Entomology, NHB- 168, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Members in good standing receive the Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Nonmember subscriptions are $.15.00 per year, domestic, and $40.00 per year, foreign (U.S. currency), payable in advance. Foreign delivery cannot be guaranteed. All remittances should be made payable to Tfie Entomological Society of H'ashington. The Society does not exchange its publications for those of other societies.

PLEASE SEE P. 129 OF VOL. 90(1) FOR INFORMATION REGARDING PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPTS.

STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP

Title of Publication: Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington.

Frequency of Issue: Quarterly (January. April, July, October).

Location ofOffice of Publication, Business Oflice of Publisher and Owner: The Entomological Society of Wash- ington, c/o Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, lOth and Constitution NW. Wash- ington, D.C. 20560.

Editor: Hiram G. Larcw, B-470, ARS. USDA. Beltsville, MD 20705.

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This issue was mailed 13 December 1988

Second Class Postage Paid al Washinglon. D.C. and additional mailing office. PRINTED BY ALLEN PRESS. INC.. LAWRENCE. KANSAS 66044. USA

THIS PUBLICATION IS PRINTED ON ACID-FREE PAPER.

PROC. ENTOMOL. SOC. WASH. 91(1), 1989, pp. 1-8

GEOMYDOECUS (MALLOPHAGA: TRICHODECTIDAE) FROM THE

TEXAS AND DESERT POCKET GOPHERS

(RODENTIA: GEOMYIDAE)

Ronald A. Hellenthal and Roger D. Price

(RAH) Associate Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556; (RDP) Professor, Department of Entomology, Uni- versity of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota 55108.

Abstract. Geomydoecus truncatiis Wemeck and G. quadridentatus Price anS Emerson are redescribed and illustrated. The new species G. neotruncatus is described, with the type host being Geomvs personatus streckeri Davis. / t n m -i

Key Words: lice, Geomys arenarius, Geomys personatus \

Since the initial revision of the pocket gopher lice by Price and Emerson (1971), most of the taxa of the louse genus Geo- mydoecus Ewing occurring on the host ge- nus Geomys Rafinesque have been the sub- ject of re-examination and further study and analysis. The principal works dealing with these lice are those by Price and Hellenthal (1975) on the Geomydoecus texamis com- plex, Price (1975) on the G. scleritus com- plex, and Timm and Price (1980) on the G. geomydis complex. This last work presents keys to the males and females of all Geo- mydoecus known to that time from Geomys gophers. It is the purpose of the present pa- per to complete the taxonomic study of lice from Geomys by considering the Geomy- doecus truncatus complex from the Texas pocket gopher, Geomys personatus True, and the Geomydoecus quadridentatus complex from the desert pocket gopher, Geomys are- narius Merriam.

Quantitative data for the lice studied in this paper combined with host and locality information form part of a computerized pocket gopher-louse data base maintained at the University of Notre Dame. Counted or measured characters in the following de-

scriptions are followed by the minimal and maximal observed values, and, in paren- theses, the sample size, mean, and standard deviation. All measurements are in milli- meters. In evaluating character usefulness for specific discrimination, critical values for each character were calculated at the point where the likelihood of single char- acter misidentification of the two compared taxa was equal, given normality and equal variance, and ignoring the probability of collection. For characters offering moder- ately good discriminating ability, these crit- ical values and the corresponding probabil- ities of misidentification are given. In an abbreviated comparative description for a species, quantitative data are given only for those characters whose means differ at a sig- nificance level of P < 0.01. The host dis- tribution map was produced by a computer from a pocket gopher/louse association data base (Hellenthal and Price 1984). The map projection is rectangular to simplify deter- mination of the latitude and longitude for individual collection sites. Original locality data expressed in miles are followed par- enthetically by the metric equivalent to 0.1 km; the English figure, rather than the met-

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON

ric, expresses the precision of the location estimate. Abbreviations used for host acces- sion numbers are KU (University of Kan- sas), TAM (Texas A&M University), and TT (Texas Tech University). Detailed de- scriptions of the characters and quantitative procedures used for (ieomydoecus lice are included in Hellenthal and Price (1980).

Geomydoecus truncatus Werneck

Figs. 1-6

Geoiuydoecus truncatus Wenxcck, 1950; 13. Type host: Geomys personatus personatus True.

Male. As in Fig. 6. Temple width (TW) 0.435-0.470 (26: 0.450 ± 0.0096); head length (HL) 0.325-0.360 (26: 0.338 ± 0.0089); submarginal and inner marginal temple setae 0.030-0.045 (15: 0.036 ± 0.0046) and 0.020-0.030 (24: 0.025 ± 0.0015) long, respectively, with submargin- al seta positioned near inner marginal seta and both marginal setae blunt, spiniform (Fig. 3). Antenna with scape length (SL) 0.180-0.200 (23: 0.191 ± 0.0057), scape medial width (SM W) 0. 1 1 0-0. 1 25 (23: 0.119 ± 0.0054), scape distal width (SDW) 0. 1 1 0- 0.130 (23: 0.122 ± 0.0054); without pro- jection on posterior margin. Prothorax width (PW) 0.320-0.345 (26: 0.330 ± 0.0069). Abdominal tergal setae: I, 2; 11, 12-16 (26 14.0 ± 1.18); III, 16-24 (26: 19.6 ± 1.68) IV, 19-25 (26: 22.3 ± 2.00); V, 16-25 (26 19.9 ± 2.13); VI, 13-20(26: 15.8 ± 1.83) tergal and pleural setae on VII, 18-22 (26 20.5 ± 1.21). Abdominal sternal setae: II, 9-12 (25: 10.5 ± 0.96); III, 9-15 (26: 1 1.5 ± 1.30); IV, 1 1-15 (26: 13.2 ± 1.08); V, 8- 12 (25: 10.1 ± 1.15); VI, 6-9 (24: 7.7 ± 0.85); VII, 6-9 (25: 6.9 ± 0.91); VIII, 4-8 (25: 6.1 ± 0.86). Total length (TL) 1.210- 1 .385 (25: 1 .285 ± 0.05 1 1 ). Genitalia as in Fig. 5; spinose sac with 6 medium spines; parameral arch flattened medioposteriorly, width (PAW) 0.140-0.160 (23: 0.154 ± 0.0057); endomeral plate broadly rounded, with small medioposterior notch, width

(EPW) 0.075-0.090 (26: 0.085 ± 0.0037), length (EPL) 0.075-0.100 (24: 0.087 ± 0.0054).

Female.- As in Fig. 1. TW 0.475-0.500 (23: 0.483 ± 0.0073); HL 0.310-0.345 (23: 0.327 ± 0.0083); submarginal and inner marginal temple setae 0.030-0.050 (17: 0.037 ± 0.0055) and 0.035-0.045 (22: 0.040 ± 0.003 1 ) long, respectively, with submar- ginal seta positioned near inner marginal seta (Fig. 2). PW 0.340-0.385 (23: 0.356 ± 0.0 1 1 9). Abdominal tergal setae: I, 2; II, 14- 18 (23: 16.3 ± 1.05); III, 20-25 (23: 22.4 ± 1.38); IV, 23-30 (23: 26.2 ± 1.95); V, 24-28 (23: 25.6 ± 1 .08); VI, 2 1-25 (23: 23.4 ± 1 .23); tergal and pleural setae on VII, 24- 34(23:28.4 ± 2.31). Longest seta of medial 10 on tergite VI, 0.075-0.090 (22: 0.084 ± 0.0040); on tergite VII, 0.090-0.120 (23: 0.102 ± 0.0074), with 0-2 (23: 0.6 ± 0.79) of these longer than 0. 1 00. Longer of medial pair of setae on tergite VIII, 0.060-0.085 (22: 0.073 ± 0.0070). Last tergite with 3 lateral setae close together on each side; out- er, middle, and inner setae 0.070-0.095 ( 1 9: 0.082 ± 0.0067), 0.080-0.105 (20: 0.092 ± 0.0067), and 0.080-0.105 (19: 0.095 ± 0.0057) long, respectively. Abdominal ster- nal setae: II, 9-13 (23: 10.6 ± 0.84); III, 9- 13 (23: 1 1.5 ± 1.04); IV, 12-17 (22: 14.4 ± 1.50); V, 10-14 (22: 12.0 ± 1.21); VI, 8- 13 (22: 10.8 ± 1.60); VII, 6-10 (22: 7.7 ± 1.16). Subgenital plate with 1 8-23 (23:21.2 ± 1 .53) setae, with distribution and lengths as in Fig. 1, with 1 seta on each side dis- tinctly longer and thicker than others. TL 1.165-1.410 (21: 1.271 ± 0.0525). Post- vulval sclerite as in Fig. 1, with 2 subequal short setae posterior to it on each side. Gen- ital sac as in Fig. 4, width (GSW) 0.200- 0.280 (17: 0.248 ± 0.0195), length (GSL) 0.100-0.180 (17: 0.132 ± 0.0251); with weak anterior papillose area and with 0-5 (17: 2.1 ± 1.82) transverse anterior lines, posteriormost line, when present, situated 0.020-0.060 (12: 0.042 ±0.0121) back from anterior sac margin.

Discussion.— The male of G. truncatus is

VOLUME 91, NUMBER 1

Figs. 1-6. Gcoinydoirus Iruncalus. 1, Female dorsal (left) ventral (right) view. 2. Female dorsal left temple margin. 3. Male dorsal left temple margin. 4, Female genital sac. 5, Male \ entral genitalia. 6, Male dorsal (left) ventral (right) view. Measurements are in millimeters.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON

easily distinguished from all other Gcomyd- oecus by its uniquely shaped parameral arch; no other described species of this genus has the distinctive mediopostcrior flattening. The female is not as readily diflbrenliated, but the combination of the genital sac struc- ture, dimensions, and chaetotaxy features should separate it.

Wcrneck (1950) described G. truncatus from a series of six males taken o^ Geomys pcrsonatus from Padre Island, Texas. This locality would make the host G. p. pcrsona- tus. the only pocket gopher that Hall ( 1 98 1 ) lists from there. However, we have found only Geomydoecus texanus texanus Ewing on that host. The paucity of our records cannot rule out the possibility that G. iriin- catus may also occur there, but, conversely, we arc unable to confirm that it does. Our inability to do this becomes critical since we have now determined that what has been known as G. truncatus actually consists of two species— one from Gconiys p. strcckeri Davis and the other from G. p. fallax Mer- riam. Price and Emerson (1971) had spec- imens only from G. p. strcckeri and named them Geomydoecus truncatus. Numerous subsequent collections from Gconiys p. fal- lax and the determination that these were different from the G. p. strcckeri lice raised the necessity of establishing which is the true Geomydoecus truncatus. Fortunately, we have been able to examine two of Wer- neck's paratypes and have determined that they are conspecific with our scries from Gcomys p. fallax.

Gconiys p. fallax also has Geomydoecus texanus texanus occurring on it. Of the six gophers of this host taxon that yielded G. t. texanus. only one also had G. truncatus. This one gopher had 12 G. truncatus and only one specimen of G. t. texanus, raising the possibility that the latter might have been a contaminant or straggler. It appears that these two louse taxa, although found on the same host subspecies, occur in exclusive ranges.

Material examined. 2 3, Paratypes of

Geomydoecus truncatus. ex Gcomys pcrso- natus. Padre Island, Texas; 53 9, 57 <J, ex G. p. fallax, 9 gophers from 7 localities in San Patricio Co., Nueces Co., and Live Oak Co., Texas.

Geomydoecus neotruncatus Hellenthal and Price, Nkvv Species

Type host: Gcomys pcrsonatus strcckeri Davis.

Male.- Much as for G. truncatus, except as follows. TW 0.405-0.430 (20: 0.420 ± 0.0053); HL 0.310-0.345 (20: 0.326 ± 0.0077). Antennal SL 0.165-0.185 (19 0.177 ± 0.0051), SMW 0.100-0.120 (19 0.109 ± 0.0058), SDW 0.100-0.120 (19 0.112 ± 0.0047). PW 0.305-0.335 (20 0.309 ± 0.0078). Setae on stemite II, 7-1 1 (20: 9.1 + 1.02); VI, 8-12(19: 9.5 ± 0.90). Genitalia PAW 0.140-0.155 (20: 0.145 ± 0.0048).

Female. Much as for G. truncatus, ex- cept as follows. TW 0.440-0.465 (20: 0.448 ± 0.0077); HL 0.300-0.330 (20: 0.316 ± 0.0075); inner marginal temple seta 0.035- 0.045 (20: 0.037 ± 0.0030) long. PW 0.325- 0.340 (20: 0.329 ± 0.0061). Tergal setae: II, 13-17 (20: 15.0 ± 1.23); III, 18-23 (20: 21.0 ± 1.49); IV, 20-28 (20: 23.9 ± 1.65); V. 20-26 (20: 24.2 ± 1.65). Longer seta of medial pair on tergite VIII, 0.050-0.075 (19: 0.062 ± 0.0068). Outer seta on last tergite 0.060-0.085 (20: 0.075 ± 0.0057) long. Sternal setae: II, 8-1 1 (20: 9.7 ± 0.91); V, 10-15(20: 13.0 ± 1.10); VI, 9-14 (20: 12.3 ± 1.22); VIL 8-1 1 (20: 9.6 ± 0.88).

Discussion. Both sexes of G. neotrun- catus are smaller than G. truncatus and tend to have fewer abdominal tergal setae and more sternal setae on the posterior seg- ments. For males, the critical values for dis- crimination and probabilities of misiden- tification for the best discriminating quantitative characters separating these two taxa arc the temple width 0.435 (0.034), prothorax width 0.320 (0.085), and scape length 0.184 (0.109). For females, the best

VOLUME 91, NUMBER 1

are temple width 0.466 (0.009), prothorax width 0.343 (0.081), and setae on stemite VII 8.69 (0.177).

The males of both species key to G. trun- catiis in the first half of couplet 6 in Timm and Price ( 1 980), where G. neotmncatus can be separated by its temple width less than 0.435 and prothorax width less than 0.320. The females of both species key either to G. truncatus in couplet 2 or G. quadridentatiis Price and Emerson in couplet 9. Temple width under 0.466 and prothorax width un- der 0.343 will distinguish G. neotnincatiis from (/'. Iruncatus; both may be separated from G. quadridentatiis by their shorter se- tae on pleurites III-IV (Fig. 1 vs. Fig. 7) and differences in the genital sac configuration (Fig. 4 vs. Fig. 8).

Material examined. Holotype 9, ex Geo- niys personatus slreckcri. 14 mi (22.5 km) W Crystal City, Zavala Co., Texas, 9.II.1953, KU-52238; in collection of the University of Kansas. Paratypes, ex G. p. streckeri: 9, 7 S, same as holotype; 22 9, 17 S, same except KU-52239 or 10.11.1953, KU-52245, 52246; 13 9, 11 6, E Carrizo Springs, Dimmit Co., Texas, 4.1.1970, TT- 9665, 9666; 6 9, 4 3, 13 mi (20.9 km) N or NE Carrizo Springs, Dimmit Co., Texas, 17.1.1970, TT-10126, 10131; 1 9, I mi (1.6 km) SW Carrizo Springs, Dimmit Co., Tex- as, 23. V. 1974, TAM-27613; 5 9, 4 <?, Car- rizo Springs, Dimmit Co., Texas, 24.XI.1938, TAM-789; paratypes distrib- uted among the United States National Mu- seum of Natural History, Field Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota, and Oklahoma State University.

Geomydoecus quadridentatus Price and Emerson

Figs. 7-1 1

Geomydoecus quadridentatus Price and Emerson, 1971: 240. Type host: Geoniys arenarius arenarius Merriam.

Male.— Grossly as in Fig. 6. except an- tenna as in Fig. 10, and dorsal abdomen as

in Fig. 1 1. TW 0.365-0.410 (80: 0.392 ± 0.0100); HL 0.270-0.325 (79: 0.295 ± 0.0126); submarginal and inner marginal temple setae 0.040-0.065 (73: 0.052 ± 0.0051) and 0.020-0.030 (79: 0.024 ± 0.0023) long, respectively. Antenna with SL 0.145-0.175 (80: 0.164 ± 0.0069), SMW 0.095-0.120 (80: 0.109 ± 0.0062), SDW 0.115-0.150 (80: 0.135 + 0.0082); with prominent process on posterior margin (Fig 10). PW 0.265-0.315 (79: 0.289 ± 0.0112) Abdominal tergal setae: I, 2; II, 8-16 (80 12.2 ± 1.43); III, 14-23 (78: 18.7 ± 1.65) IV, 17-27 (78: 21.1 ± 2.03); V, 16-26 (78

19.5 ± 1.90); VI, 1 1-19 (78: 15.0 ± 1.54) tergal and pleural setae on VII, 15-24 (80 20.2 ± 1.69). Abdominal sternal setae: II, 9-15 (79: 1 1.7 ± 1.49); III, 1 1-17 (79: 13.9 ± 1.39); IV, 11-19(80: 14.3 ± 1.62); V, 8- 14 (80: 10.8 ± 1.42); VI, 6-1 1 (79: 9.2 ± 1.13); VII, 5-9 (77: 7.3 ± 0.91); VIII, 5-7 (79: 5.9 ± 0.51). TL 1.130-1.415(79: 1.245 ± 0.0634). Genitalia as in Fig. 9; spinose sac with 4 large central and 0-2 smaller lat- erally displaced spines; parameral arch with prominent medioposterior projection, PAW 0.130-0.155 (79: 0.144 ± 0.0052); endo- meral plate triangular with short apical di- vision. EPW 0.065-0.080 (80: 0.072 ± 0.0035), EPL 0.060-0.080 (80: 0.071 ± 0.0049).

Female. Grossly as in Fig. 1 , except dor- sal abdomen as in Fig. 7. TW 0.400-0.470 (80:0.439 ± 0.0122); HL 0.260-0.310 (80: 0.283 ± 0.0098); submarginal and inner marginal temple setae 0.040-0.070 (78: 0.054 ± 0.005 1 ) and 0.040-0.050 (78: 0.045 ± 0.0036) long, respectively. PW 0.280- 0.345 (80: 0.3 1 1 ± 0.0 1 20). Abdominal ter- gal setae: I, 2; II, 13-19 (78: 15.2 ± 1.40); III, 19-27(77:21.8 ± 1.94); IV, 20-30 (77:

24.6 ± 2.40); V, 18-28 (78: 22.5 ± 2.21); VI, 1 6-26 (79: 20.9 ± 2.38); tergal and pleu- ral setae on VII, 25-39 (80: 32.4 ± 2.95). Longest seta of medial 10 on tergite VI, 0.070-0.100 (80: 0.087 ± 0.0062); on ter- gite VII, 0.085-0.1 15 (80: 0.102 ± 0.0069), with 0-6 (80: 0.9 ± 1.44) of these longer

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Figs. 7-1 1. Geomydoecus quadridenlatus. 7, Female dorsal abdomen. 8, Female genital sac. 9, Male ventral genitalia. 10, Male ventral antenna. 1 1. Male dorsal abdomen. Measurements arc in millimeters.

than 0.100. Longer of medial pair of setae on tergite VIII, 0.050-0.085 (79: 0.067 ± 0.0082). Last tergite with outer, middle, and inner setae 0.045-0.075 (74: 0.058 ± 0.0064), 0.060-0.090 (74: 0.074 ± 0.0065), and 0.060-0.090 (79: 0.076 ± 0.0069) long, respectively. Abdominal sternal setae: II, 8- 16 (79: 11.9 ± 1.77); III, 11-17 (77: 14.3 ± 1.26); IV, 1 1-19 (79: 15.0 ± 1.75); V, 8- 16 (78: 1 1.8 ± 1.51); VI, 7-12 (78: 9.6 ± 1.02); VII, 6-1 1 (78: 8.8 ± 0.96). Subgenital plate with 18-26 (80: 21.7 ± 2.07) setae. TL 1.090-1.335 (79: 1.198 ± 0.0532). Gen- ital sac as in Fig. 8, GSW 0.175-0.255 (79: 0.206 ± 0.0144), GSL 0.155-0.200 (77: 0.181 ± 0.01 15), with 0-4 (79: 2.1 ± 0.82) curved medioanterior loops, posteriormost loop, when present, situated 0.040-0.105 (78: 0.07 1 ± 0.0 1 1 5) back from antenor sac margin.

Discussion. Both sexes of (7. quadriden- latus are easily separated from G. truncatus

and G. neotruncatus. Males of G. quadri- denlatus have conspicuously different gen- italia (Fig. 9 vs. Fig. 5), the antennal scape with a posterior process (Fig. 1 0), and dorsal abdominal chaetotaxy (Fig. 1 1) with longer setae on pleuron V, generally longer lateral tergal setae, and the three short setae on each side of the last tergite evenly spaced and aligned with very short seta as shown. Females of G. quadridentatus have a differ- ent line configuration of the genital sac (Fig. 8 vs. Fig. 4) and longer pleural setae at least on abdominal segments III-V (Fig. 7). These three species of lice also are well separated geographically, with G. quadridentatus dis- tributed in north central Chihuahua, west- ern Texas, and south central New Mexico, and with G. truncatus and G. neotruncatus in south central Texas (Fig. 1 2).

As originally described by Price and Emerson (1971), males of G. quadridentatus were said to have only four large genital sac

VOLUME 91, NUMBER 1

spines, with no mention of one or two small- er laterally displaced spines. However, re- cent examination of much larger series of lice than were available earlier has shown 94 of 179 (52.5%) males with only the four large central spines, 46 (25.7%) with a single smaller additional spine, and 39 (21.8%) with two smaller spines as in Fig. 9. The percentage of gophers with no, one, or two smaller sac spines is essentially the same for all gopher populations of 6'. cjiiadndentatus studied. The presence of these smaller spines should not complicate proper identification, if other characters and host association are considered.

There is discussion among mam malogists as to whether Gcomys arcnaniis is a valid species apart from G. bursarius (Shaw). Also uncertain arc the relationships among up to five populations ofGeoniys possessing what we here call Geomydoecus quadridentatus: 1) gophers around Gran Quivera, New Mexico; 2) gophers around San Antonio, New Mexico; 3) gophers considered to be G. a. hrcvirosfris Hall; 4) a "river" popu- lation of gophers belonging to G. a. arc- narius; and 5) an "upland" population of G. a. arcnarius. We collected numerous lice from all five of these groups, analyzed them qualitatively and quantitatively, and could find no meaningful differences. We could demonstrate occasional quantatitive char- acter differences at a relatively high prob- ability of misidcntification, but these showed no consistent occurrence. We do not believe these louse populations merit taxonomic distinctions at this time. Speaking strictly from the louse standpoint, the lice from all five populations are sufficiently different from lice from Gcomys bursarius to support G. arcnarius as a separate taxon and suffi- ciently similar to each other to group all five gopher populations into G. arcnarius.

Material examined. 244 9, 267 S, ex Geomys arenarius arcnarius, 50 gophers from 1 7 localities in New Mexico, Texas, and Chihuahua; 67 2, 5 1 <5, ex G. a. hrcviros- tris. 1 5 gophers from 6 localities in New

102

LONGITUDE

Fig. 12. Geographic distribution of OV'(W)n(/"f«(,v Iruihciliis (closed circles), (/. ncolnincaliis (open cir- cles), and G. quadndentalus (triangles).

Mexico; 26 9, 22 3, ex Geomys, 7 gophers from 2 localities near Gran Quivera, New Mexico; 35 9, 28 3 ex Gcomys, 4 gophers near San Antonio, New Mexico.

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank Sebastiao J. de Oli veira. Curator, Fundacjao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de .laneiro, Brasil, for the loan of the Werneck type scries. Partial support for this study was supplied by a grant from the National Science Foundation to the University of Notre Dame (Grant No. BSR86- 14456). This is published as paper 15,754 of the Scientific Journal Series of the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station on re- search conducted under Project No. Min- 17-015.

Literature Cited

Hall. t:. R. 14X1. The Mammals of North America. 2nd Ed. Vol. \. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. XV + 600 + 90 pp.

Hellenthal, R. A. and R. D. Price. 1980. A review of the (ic(ii»ydoccus suhcalifonucus Complex (Mal- lophaga: Trichodectidae) from rliDiuoniys pocket gophers (Rodcntia: Geomyidac). with a discussion of quantitative techniques and automated taxo-

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON

nomic procedures. Ann. Enlomol. Soc. Amcr. 73: 495-50.1.

. 1984. Disliihiilional associations among

Geoinydoecus and I'hoinninydoccus lice (Mal- lophaga: Trichodcctidac) and pocket gopher hosts of the Thotnoiiiys bullae group (Kodentia: (ieo- niyidae). J. Med. Entomol. 21: 4.32^46.

Price, R. D. 1975. The 6'«;/m'^«rM.v (Mallophaga: Trichodectidae) of the southeastern USA pocket gophers (Rodentia: Cieomyidae). Proc. I^ntomol. Soc. Wash. 77: 61-65.

Price, K. 1). and K. C. Emerson. 1971. A revision of the genus (Icoinydoccus (Mallophaga: Trichodec- tidae) of the New World pocket gophers (Rodentia: Cieomyidae). .1. Med. Entomol. 8: 228-257.

Price, R. D. and R. A. Hellenthal. 1975. A review of the Geoinydoecus Ic.xanu.s complex (Mallophaga: Irichodectidae) from (icimiys and I'appoiieninys (Rodentia: (ieomyidae)..l. Med. Entomol. 12:401- 408.

Timm, R. M. and R. D. Price. 1980. The ta.xonomy of Cieomydoecus (Mallophaga: Trichodectidae) from the Cieomys Iniisanus complex (Rodentia: Geomyidae). J. Med. Entomol. 17: 126-145.

Werneck, F. L. 1950. Os Malofagos de Mamiferos. Parte II: Isehnocera (eonlinuavao de Trichodec- tidae) e Rhyncophthirina. Ed. do Inst. Osw. Cru/., Rio de .laneiro. 207 pp.

PROC. ENTOMOL. SOC. WASH. 91(1). 1989, pp. 9-14

BIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE EGG

STAGE AND OVIPOSITION OF LANGURIA MOZARDI

(COLEOPTERA: LANGURIIDAE)

Michael M. Ellsbury and Gerald T. Baker

(MME) USDA-ARS. Crop Science Research Laboratory, Forage Research LInit, P.O. Box 5367, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762; (GTB) Department of Entomology, P.O. Drawer EM, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762.

Abstract. Oviposition sites of Languria mozardi Latreille, the clover stem borer, were determined on Trifolium incarnatum L., a previously unreported host. The 2nd and 3rd internodes of primary flowering stems are the preferred sites on T. incarnatum. Oviposition occurs in stems of T. repens L., T. pratense L., T. hybridum L., T. resupinatian L., T. striatum L., T. nigrescens Viv., and T. subterraneum L. but not on T. lappaceum L.. There is usually one oviposition puncture and egg per stem, the egg being attached to the plant tissue by an extension on the posterior end. The micropylar region is simple in form and the chorionic surface has a granular appearance. The sensilla on the ovipositor differ in the types, number, and distribution as compared to the sensilla on the ovipositor of other beetle species. The ablation experiment indicates that these sensilla on the ovipositor are possibly involved in selecting a suitable oviposition site.

Key Words: Languria mozardi. sensilla, larva, mouth parts, antenna

The clover stem borer, Languria mozardi Latreille, is endemic to North America on a wide range of host plants including the Leguminosae, Compositae, Umbelliferae, and Gramineae. It is considered a pest of alfalfa, Medicago saliva L., and red clover, Trifolium pratense L. (Lintner 1881, Fol- som 1909). Wildermuth and Gates (1920) reported early studies on the biology, mor- phology, and pest status of L. mozardi on forage crops. Damage from larval feeding inside stems weakens the plant and results in lodging, loss of seed, and forage produc- tion. Damage to stems also may predispose plants to root rot pathogens. Increased fiber content in damaged stems reduces forage quality (Wildermuth and Gates 1920).

Except for a single report (Knight et al. 1976) from arrowleaf clover, T. vesiculosum

Savi, L. mozardi is known as a forage pest only on perennial legumes. This insect has been collected annually in Mississippi from 1982-85 on T. vesiculosum, T. incarnatum L. (crimson clover) and from 1983-85 on T. alexandrinum L. (berseem clover). The importance of seed production in annual clovers to ensure stand persistence and the ability of L. mozardi to reduce seed and forage yield in other legumes makes this in- sect a potential pest of annual clovers.

No information is available on the biol- ogy of L. mozardi on annual clovers and existing morphological studies are incom- plete. In the present study, oviposition sites and frequencies on crimson clover, a pre- viously unreported host, are reported from greenhouse studies. Host range for ovipo- sition also are determined on several clover

10

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Species that are or have been of economic importance. The morphology of the egg and ovipositor sensilla are described.

Materials and Methods

Adult L. mozardi were collected from roadside plantings of crimson clover using a motorcycle-mounted collection net (Ells- bury and Davis 1982). Pairs of mating L. mozardi were sorted from collections, pro- vided with a water source, and held 24 h in a 9-cm diam plastic Petri dish. To deter- mine oviposition sites on crimson clover, 3 pairs of insects were confined for 24 h on each of 12 greenhouse-grown flowering crimson clover plants in cylindrical screened cages (14-cm diam x 90 cm). Host range for oviposition by L. mozardi on other Tri- folium species also was studied by similarly caging 3 pairs of insects on each of 2 green- house-grown flowering plants of T. repens L. (white clover), T. prateme (red clover), T. hybridum L. (alsike clover), T. resiipi- natitm L. (persian clover), T. striatum L. (pitts or striate clover), T. nigrescens Viv. (ball clover), 7". lappaceum L. (lappa clo- ver), and T. subterraneum L. (subterranean clover). After 24 h exposure to test insects, stems were split using a single-edge razor blade and the location and number of eggs were recorded for oviposition punctures on primary and lateral stems.

An average intemodal location of ovi- position punctures was calculated for clo- vers in the host range study from integer values assigned to each intemode beginning with the lowermost intemode (#1) and in- creasing to the (last) intemode below the flower head of each stem.

Eggs were removed from the clover stems and placed in 5% glutaraldehyde in 0. 1 M Na-cacodylate buffer at pH 7.2 for 12 h at 4°C. The specimens were washed in the same buffer and then post-fixed in 4% OsOj in cacodylate buffer for 8 h. After dehydration the eggs were critical-point dried, affixed to aluminum stubs with tape, sputter coated with Au/Pd, and examined with a Hitachi

HHS-2R scanning electron microscope at 20 kV. The same preparation procedure was used for the ovipositors. Measurements were made with a light microscope with a cali- brated ocular micrometer and are given as a mean plus the range.

Mated females for the behavioral exper- iments were anesthetized with CO, and the ovipositor was gently pulled out and treated with 16% HCl. They were placed in petri dishes with a moist filter paper and allowed to recover ovemight. Six treated and 6 un- treated females were placed in petri dishes containing pieces of flowering clover stems with the second and third intemodes. The specimens were examined every 1 0 minutes for 1 h and the experiment was replicated 3 times.

Results

Frequency distribution by intemode of oviposition sites on crimson clover con- taining 1 or 2 eggs is illustrated in Fig. 1. Oviposition punctures were most frequent (22/63 and 18/63, respectively) in the 2nd and 3rd intemodes of primary flowering stems. No eggs were deposited in lateral flowering stems. Of 78 stems examined, 1 1 had 2 oviposition punctures and 4 1 had one puncture. Six of 8 sites where 2 eggs were deposited were situated at the 3rd inter- node. Mean number of eggs per stem was 0.86 ±0.11 (.V ± SE, N = 78).

Oviposition by L. mozardi in 1 1 species of clovers during a no-choice test is sum- marized in Table 1. Lappa clover, T. lap- paceum. was the only species in which eggs were not deposited. The usual number of eggs per site is 1 or 2 for all clovers studied, although 3 eggs occurred in a single punc- ture on T. nigrescens and 4 eggs in a punc- ture on a stem of T. pratense. Eggs were usually deposited in sites at the 3rd inter- node or higher on all clovers studied. The greatest number of eggs per stem (0.75 ± 0.33) were deposited in red clover, T. pra- tense.

Behavior of the adult female during ovi-

VOLUME 91, NUMBER 1

11

n=55 2 Eggs per Puncture

0 5 10 15 20 -^

NUMBER OF OVIPOSITION PUNCTURES

Fig. 1. Iniernodal frequency dislnbulion of Lan- guria mozardi egg punctures containing 1 or 2 eggs in stems of crimson clover. Tnfolium incarnaltim.

position is similar on all Tnfolium species included in these studies. After chewing a hole in the plant tissue the female uses her ovipositor to excavate a cavity in the pith into which the egg is placed. Externally, the opening is covered by shredded plant ma- terial while internally the opening is sur- rounded by a distinct rim (Fig. 2a, b). The egg is attached to the plant tissue by an ex- tension from the tapered end (Fig. 2c). The egg is clyindrical, translucent yellowish, ta- pered at one end and measures 1545 /um (1455-1800) in length and 495 ^m (480-

510) in width (Fig. 2d). The micropyle is situated on the blunt end and consists of a small, irregular shaped area from which sev- eral ridges radiate (Fig. 2e). At low magni- fication the surface of the chorion appears smooth (Fig. 2d) but at higher magnifica- tions the surface has a rough, granular ap- pearance and minute openings are dispersed randomly over the surface (Fig. 20.

The ovipositor coxites are pointed dis- tally and near the middle of the ventral sur- face of each coxite there is an area with a high concentration of long, slender spines (Fig. 3a, b). Just posterior to the distal end of each coxite a short style is present (Fig. 3a, b). It is 72 ^m (69-74 nm) long and 20 ^m (18-21.5 ^lm) wide and lOsensilla trich- odea are on the apex (Fig. 3b, d). These sensilla vary in length from 23.5 ixxn (21- 25 jxm) to 98 ixm (95-101 ^m) and they are either slightly curved or straight (Fig. 3d). Another group of 9 sensilla trichodea are situated on the eclal surface of each coxite near the base of the style (Fig. 3a, c). These trichoid sensilla range in length from 1 9 ;um (17.5-21 urn) to 71.5 Mm (69-74 Mm). The 6 sensilla positioned between the straight single posterior and 2 long straight anterior sensilla are slightly curved (Fig. 3c). Sensilla basiconica are situated on the dorsal and

Table 1. Frequency and internodal sites of oviposition by Languna mozardi in eleven Tnfolium species dunng a no-choice test.

Ave Intemodal Location

f'niolnirn Specii's'

No Stems

Eggs/Stem -

Mean No. Nodes/Stem

o1 tlviposuion Punctures

* ■/■. subtcnancum

19

.47 ± .16

6.42 ± .55

4.67 ± .69

T. lappaceum

22

0

9.14 ± .60

*T. nigrescens^

5

7.00 ± .32

-

*T. resupinatwn

26

.23 ± .08

5.65 ± .23

4.17 ± .65

*T. repens

13

.38 ± .14

7.96 ± 1.04

3.40 ± 1.17

*T. SI rial urn

16

.44 ± .18

6.25 ± .40

3.00 ± .82

T. prawnse

12

.75 ± .33

5.25 ± .37

5.00 ± .50

T. vesuulo.sum

16

.69 ± .24

10.50 ± .61

8.27 ± .75

*T. atexandrinum

13

.23 ± .12

12.85 ± .69 -